Dynamics of bacterial composition and the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements during the co-composting with gentamicin fermentation residue and lovastatin fermentation residue

Dynamics in bacterial community composition, along with 13 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and eight mobile genetic elements (MGEs), were assessed during co-composting with gentamicin and lovastatin fermentation residue (GFR and LFR, respectively). Using next generation sequencing, the key bacterial taxa associated with the different stages of composting were identified. Most importantly, Bacillus, belonging to Phylum Firmicutes, was associated with enhanced degradation of gentamicin, decomposition of organic matter (OM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and also extension of the thermophilic phase of the composting cycle. During the course of composting, the patterns of different ARGs/MGEs varied. However, the total and the normalized (to bacterial numbers) copies both remained high. The abundance of various ARGs was related to bacterial abundance and community composition, and the changing pattern of individual ARGs was influenced by the selectivity of MGEs and bacteria.